Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Ethics vs. Morality

Саяхан гарсан "100 чухал сэдэв: Ёс зүй" нэвтрүүлгийг тойрсон яриандаа манайхан ethics, morality хоёрын ялгааны талаар баахан элийрэв. Яг Монголоор энэ хоёр ухагдахууныг сүүлийн үед юу гэж тогтохоор болсон юм бол мэдэх юм алга (justice-ийг жишээ нь "зүй ёс" гэж орчуулдаг болсон байна лээ). Юутай ч Steven Lukes-ийн ойрмогхоны нэг номонд ethics, morality хоёрыг яаж ялгасныг нь энд ишлэе:

"The moral" can also be distinguished from "the ethical." This latter way (which descends from Hegel's distinction between Moralität and Sittlichkeit) involves postulating a different and narrower sense of "moral" that derives from Kant. In this view, morality denotes something that is both more severe and more abstract; and it is seen as applying anywhere and everywhere. It directs attention to the duties or obligations I have to other human beings viewed, from the standpoint of justice, as possessors of rights. The ethical, by contrast, refers to the values and ideals that inhere in one or another specific way of life--and these will, of course, be multiple and sometimes mutually incompatible. Ronald Dworkin, the legal theorist, captured the core of this distinction when he wrote that "ethics includes convictions about which kinds of lives are good or bad for a person to lead, and morality includes principles about how a person should treat other people."
Moral Relativism by Steven Lukes, p. 135